When Juno headed toward Jupiter in 2011, scientists had a few theories about what would be found. These theories are being challenged as data being sent back from Juno is studied. As it turns out, much of what had been believed about Jupiter is simply not the case.
Up until now, Jupiter’s poles had not been seen but were expected to be not much different than the fairly uniform bands that have been seen. Not only do the cyclone filled poles not resemble the rest of Jupiter, but they also don’t resemble each other. At this point, it is not known if the myriad of cyclonic storms at the poles are short term and ever-changing or long lasting like the famous Great Red Spot.
Other data shows the core is not as expected either. Instead of a small, dense core or no core at all, it is large, fuzzy and appears to be partially dissolved. Previously, scientists expected that under the cloud layer, everything would be the same and rather boring. It isn’t. Scientists are finding a very complex “landscape” under the clouds and the huge magnetic field is closer to the tops of the clouds than it had been believed.
Jupiter is proving to be full of surprises. You can read more about the information Juno is sending back here: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/juno-probe-reveals-surprises-orbiting-jupiter/
Cover photo credit, and another great article on the subject: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/juno/main/index.html